Glucosamine sulfate is a naturally occurring chemical found in the human body. It is in the fluid that is around joints. Glucosamine is also found in other places in nature. For example, the glucosamine sulfate that is put into dietary supplements is often harvested from the shells of shellfish. Glucosamine sulfate used in dietary supplements does not always come from natural sources. It can also be made in a laboratory.
There are different forms of glucosamine including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These different chemicals have some similarities; however, they may not have the same effects when taken as a dietary supplement. Most of the scientific research done on glucosamine has been done on glucosamine sulfate. The information on this page pertains to glucosamine sulfate. For information on the other forms of glucosamine, see the specific pages for each of them.
Dietary supplements that contain glucosamine often contain additional ingredients. These additional ingredients are frequently chondroitin sulfate, MSM, or shark cartilage. Some people think these combinations work better than taking just glucosamine sulfate alone. So far, researchers have found no proof that combining the additional ingredients with glucosamine adds any benefit.
Some glucosamine sulfate products are not labeled accurately. In some cases, the amount of glucosamine actually in the product has varied from none to over 100% of the amount stated on the product’s label. Some products have contained glucosamine hydrochloride when glucosamine sulfate was listed on the label.
Glucosamine sulfate is taken by mouth for osteoarthritis, glaucoma, weight loss, joint pain caused by drugs, a bladder condition called interstitial cystitis, jaw pain, joint pain including knee pain, back pain, multiple sclerosis, and HIV/AIDS.
Glucosamine is also in some skin creams used to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine.
Glucosamine sulfate is used parenterally for osteoarthritis.
How does it work?
Glucosamine sulfate is a chemical found in the human body. It is used by the body to produce a variety of other chemicals that are involved in building tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and the thick fluid that surrounds joints.
Joints are cushioned by the fluid and cartilage that surround them. In some people with osteoarthritis, the cartilage breaks down and becomes thin. This results in more joint friction, pain, and stiffness. Researchers think that taking glucosamine supplements may either increase the cartilage and fluid surrounding joints or help prevent breakdown of these substances, or maybe both.
Some researchers think the “sulfate” part of glucosamine sulfate is also important. Sulfate is needed by the body to produce cartilage. This is one reason why researchers believe that glucosamine sulfate might work better than other forms of glucosamine such as glucosamine hydrochloride or N-acetyl glucosamine. These other forms do not contain sulfate.
Origin: Major component of joint cartilage. Supplements are derived from the shells of shellfish (such as shrimp, lobster and crab) or from vegetable sources.
Claims: Slows deterioration of cartilage, relieves osteoarthritis (OA) pain and improves joint mobility.
What we know: Glucosamine produced in the body provides natural building blocks for growth, repair and maintenance of cartilage. Like chondroitin, glucosamine may lubricate joints, help cartilage retain water and prevent its breakdown. Similar to NSAIDs for effectiveness of easing osteoarthritis symptoms but may take twice as long as conventional drugs to work.
Studies: Trial results are mixed, but overall, glucosamine appears to reduce pain and improve function in OA. A 2005 review of 20 glucosamine studies found an improvement in joint pain, stiffness and function with one brand of glucosamine (Rottapharm, marketed as Dona, Viartril and Xicil) but not others.
The largest study to date, the 2006 Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) looked at 1,600 people with knee OA. The first phase found that a small subset of patients with moderate-to-severe arthritis experienced significant pain relief from combined glucosamine and chondroitin. The 2008 phase found that glucosamine and chondroitin, together or alone, did not slow joint damage. And in the two-year-long 2010 phase, glucosamine and chondroitin were found as effective for knee OA as celecoxib (Celebrex).
In a small 2012 study, an improvement in symptoms was seen with combined glucosamine and NSAIDs, and a smaller but still significant improvement with glucosamine alone.
Research also suggests glucosamine may slow joint damage. A 2008 retrospective study of nearly 300 patients found those using glucosamine underwent half as many joint replacement surgeries as those on placebo.
Dosage: Capsules, tablets, liquid or powder (to be mixed into a drink); 1,500 mg once daily or in three divided doses to prevent stomach upset. Often combined with chondroitin. May take up to one month to notice effect.
Glucosamine may cause mild stomach upset, nausea, heartburn, diarrhea and constipation, as well as increased blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and blood pressure. Don’t use glucosamine if you are allergic to shellfish.
New research suggests that people with glaucoma or intraocular hypertension could have worsening eye pressure if they take a glucosamine supplement.
The Health Benefits of Goji Berries
Himalayan Goji Berries
Goji berries (Lycium barbarum) are the most nutritionally dense fruit on Earth. They are a member of the nightshade family (Solonaceae), which contains many other common vegetables such as potato, tomato, eggplant, and pepper, as well as some poisonous plants like belladonna and deadly nightshade. Native to the Himalayan Mountains of Tibet and Mongolia, the goji berry is now grown in many other countries as well.
Although they have only been introduced in Western countries in recent years, gojis have been used for thousands of years in Tibet and China, both as a culinary ingredient and medicinally.
Unique among fruits because they contain all essential amino acids, goji berries also have the highest concentration of protein of any fruit. They are also loaded with vitamin C, contain more carotenoids than any other food, have twenty-one trace minerals, and are high in fiber. Boasting 15 times the amount of iron found in spinach, as well as calcium, zinc, selenium and many other important trace minerals, there is no doubt that the humble goji berry is a nutritional powerhouse.
This amazing little superfruit also contains natural
anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal
compounds. Their powerful antioxidant properties
and polysaccharides help to boost the immune system.
It’s no wonder then, that in traditional Chinese
medicine they are renowned for increasing strength
In traditional Chinese medicine, the goji is said to act
on the Kidney and Liver meridians to help with lower
back pain, dizziness and eyesight.
They are most often consumed raw, made into a tea
or extract, or as an ingredient in soups.
Gojis are most commonly available in dried form, and
make a great snack eaten as is, added to trail mix,
muesli or oatmeal. They can also be soaked for a couple
of hours in enough water to cover them. Then the soak
water can be drained off and makes a delicious drink,
or both water and berries added to smoothies.
*Please note that there can be adverse interactions if
you consume goji berries while also taking medication
for diabetes, or blood pressure, or take the blood
So be sure to consult your health care provider if that
is the case.
Gojis can often be found in Asian food stores, but most
of these come from the commercial growing regions
of China and Tibet, and contain high levels of pesticides
and synthetic fertilizers. Even some brands which
claim to be organic may not be, so be sure to source
your goji berries from a reputable source.
* DISCLAIMER: The statements enclosed herein have
not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration. The products and information
mentioned on this site are not intended to diagnose,
Health Facts: Deer Antler Velvet.
By Clayton South
Last updated: Mar 31, 2016
Clayton South, SPN (ISSA), is a recognized expert in the bodybuilding / fitness industry with over 150 bodybuilding, fitness and nutrition publications to his credit.
DEER ANTLER VELVET
WHAT IS IT & WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
Deer antler velvet is a name that’s used to describe the antler velvet harvested from the antlers of growing deer, moose, caribou and elk. The antlers are removed from the animal before they solidify into solid bone, and the velvet is harvested with no harm coming to the animal.
Deer antler also contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, and a full spectrum of amino acids and anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. Most deer antler velvet sold as a dietary supplement comes from Korea or Australia.
WHAT ARE PROSTAGLANDINS?
Prostaglandins are hormone-like compounds produced in body tissue that help control blood pressure, smooth muscle activity, inflammation, glandular secretion, calcium movement, hormone regulation, and cell growth control.
Prostaglandins also control the substances involved in the transmission of nerve impulses, participate in the body’s defenses against infection, and regulate the rate of metabolism.
WHAT DOES IT DO?
WHAT SCIENTIFIC STUDIES GIVE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THIS?
Deer antler velvet has been used in China for over 2,000 years as a medicinal treatment for numerous minor conditions and ailments.
The effects of deer antler velvet on health will depend on the animal from which it was taken (deer, caribou, moose or elk) and the diet of the animal.
And, while scientific studies on deer antler velvet are scarce, deer antler velvet has been used by traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for infertility, joint inflammation, and hypertension.
In addition, traditional medicine has used deer antler velvet to improve mental alertness and memory, boost immune system function, speed wound healing and recovery, slow aging, balance iron levels, improve libido in both sexes, and restore joint health.
Soviet scientists in the 1980s tested the effects of deer
antler velvet on the performance of elite Russian athletes, and the results were astonishing. Deer antler velvet helped increase the strength and muscle mass of Russian athletes, and speed their recovery time from exercise.
The increases in strength helped the Russian athletes shatter new strength records at the Olympics and crush their American competitors.
GLUCOSAMINE, CHONDROITIN, & COLLAGEN
Deer antler velvet is a natural source of glucosamine, chondroitin, and collagen. The body uses glucosamine to manufacture glycosaminoglycans that are found in cartilage tissue.
WHAT ARE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS?
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), also known as mucopolysaccharides, form an important component of connective tissues. Chondroitin Sulphate and Heparin are two well-known examples of GAGs.
Science has validated the use of glucosamine sulfate (the stable form of glucosamine with a mineral salt) as a treatment for osteoarthritis1, and both chondroitin and collagen show promise in arthritis treatment. The presence of these compounds may explain the effects of deer antler velvet on joint tissue.2,3
IGF-1 (SOMATOMEDIN C)
Deer antler velvet also contains male and female hormones, including Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) – a hormone that’s produced in the liver as a response to growth hormone (HGH) stimulation.
WHAT IS HGH, AND HOW DOES IT RELATE TO IGF-1?
HGH stands for Human Growth Hormone (also known as Somatotropin), an amino acid produced in the pituitary gland of the brain. HGH plays an important role in human development by affecting skeletal growth.
HGH levels are high during childhood, and peak at adolescence. During puberty, HGH levels determine height and bone size. After puberty, HGH levels start to decline, and by age 61 decrease to 20% of what they were at age 21.
HGH is continually produced throughout the human lifecycle, and continues to regulate the body’s metabolism. HGH is carried into the liver and partially converted into IGF-1 (see below).
Increases in these hormones may also lead to increases in circulating levels of free testosterone. Deer antler velvet has been used to boost libido and sex drive, and the elevation of these hormones may explain these effects.
WHAT ARE IGF-1, SOMATOMEDIN C, AND NSILA?
IGF-1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1) was known as “Nonsuppressible Insulin-Like Activity” (NSILA) in the 1970s, and as “Somatomedin C” in the 1980s.
IGF-1 is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. IGF-1 plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults.
IGF-1 is produced by the liver upon stimulation by HGH (human growth hormone, see above), and stimulates and regulates cell growth and multiplication in bones, cartilage, and nerve cells, among other things.
WHO NEEDS IT?
WHAT ARE SOME SYMPTOMS OF DEFICIENCY?
Deer antler velvet is not an essential nutrient and no daily requirement (RDA) exists. No symptoms of deficiency exist. Healthy adults can benefit, however, from supplementing with deer antler velvet (see above).
HOW MUCH SHOULD BE TAKEN?
ARE THERE ANY SIDE EFFECTS?
No side-effects are known. It’s not known if deer antler velvet interacts with other drugs. Some people may have allergies to deer antler velvet.
Houpt J.B., McMillan R., Wein C., Paget-Dellio S.D. Effect of Glucosamine Hydrochloride in the Treatment of Pain of Osteoarthritis of the Knee. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:2423-30.
Ghosh P., Smith M., and Wells C. Second Line Agenda Osteoarthritis. In Dixon, J.S. and Furst, D.E., EDA Second Line Agents in the Treatment of Rheumatic Disease, Marcel Dekker, New York, p. 383, 1992.
Roden L. Effect of Hexosamines on the Synthesis of Chondoitin Sulfuric Acid in vitro. Ark Keml 1956; 10:3.
The truth is, gluten has the potential to cause internal inflammation inside your body and wreak tons of havoc. Inflammation inside your body has been linked to stubborn belly fat, chronic pain, and increased risk of diseases like Type 2 Diabetes, heart disease and even some forms of cancer.
It’s scary stuff. But most people feel lost when they hear they should be eating less bread, pasta, and cereal…what is there left to eat?
Going gluten free can be extremely hard if you don’t know which foods are the best choices. Lucky for you, I’m here to show you how easy going gluten free can really be.
Unfortunately, what I see most often is people turning to food with the “Gluten Free” label.
Foods labeled “gluten free” make millions claiming to be “healthy, diet foods”, but the truth is, they’re worse for you than their gluten alternatives.
Have you ever read the ingredients list on some of these foods?
They are heavily processed and contain chemical additives and artificial ingredients that are not only damaging to your health, but cause major weight gain. If you have turned to these gluten free foods in an effort to lose weight with no success, now you know why!
To get results on a gluten free diet, you need to eat real food that you’ll actually enjoy.
THE STRANGER AT THE GATE, pt.1
M.S.T of A. CHAPEL HILL, NC.
Temple #4. August 7,2016.
The Holy Koran of the MST of A…just serve your near of kin, and those that are no kin, the stranger at your gates, the foe who seeks …Chapter viii. V.13; MHK;
At a Sunday School meeting an Asiactic
male, whom had entered the Temple meeting in progress looking for help! This is the account
of the proceedings when encountered by the
Moorish participants already in the meeting.
Ira Hargraves-El, Chairman
Moorish Scholarship Fund
in Lower Manhattan and said, “I would hope to hear
an apology,” adding that he intended to turn around
and march into 1 Police Plaza for a “face-to-face”
“I want to know very clearly why I was treated in this
manner. Why would your officers act in this way?
Why would your officers actually indicate they would
do the exact same thing again?” Blake said.
Blake, who once worked for the Obama administration,
said he was attempting “to find out what was
happening” in a weekend dispute involving cops when
he was strong-armed by an officer.
“I heard a commotion happening behind me,” he said.
“I turned around, I saw a male and a female having
some sort of a dispute… I ran in that direction to find
out what was happening and within seconds I was in
a bear hug and to my left tossed to the gate that is
closest to the wall at the Morris Houses.”
A commanding officer recognized Blake and told the
officer to “get off him,’’ Blake said.
A police spokesman said Monday that a sergeant and
a cop were responding to a dispute when Blake put his
hand on the sergeant. The officer thought the sergeant
was being threatened, the spokesman said.
Blake said he didn’t remember putting his hands on the
officer and that at the most he may have touched the
Blake, who said he was wearing a White House shirt,
slacks and shoes at the time of the incident, said he has
spoken with an NYPD chief and a commanding officer
in The Bronx and that both apologized.
“When that happens you immediately think,
” It’s impossible to remove that race was not a part of it.
I was seen as a threat,” he said, choking up.
By: Jazmin Rosa and Tina Moore
Photo: Gregory P Mango
SOUTH BRONXCrime & Mayhem
Bronx Assemblyman Says NYPD Officer Used
Excessive Force Against Him
By Chris Sommerfeldt, Eddie Small and Jeff Mays
| August 1, 2016 10:04am | Updated on August 1, 2016
Assemblyman Michael Blake said an officer threw him
into a gate during an event at the Gouverneur Morris
Houses on Saturday afternoon.
Assemblyman Michael Blake said an officer threw him
into a gate during an event at the Gouverneur Morris
Houses on Saturday afternoon.
(View Full CaptionDNAinfo/Eddie Small)
THE BRONX — A New York State assemblyman from
The Bronx says police used excessive force against him
as he tried to soothe a tense situation between officers
and community members in Morrisania and then lied
about it to the press.
Assemblyman Michael Blake said he was attending a
family event at the Gouverneur Morris Houses at East
169th Street and Washington Avenue in The Bronx on
Saturday afternoon when he saw a woman in handcuffs.
The 33-year-old Blake, who represents the 79th
Assembly District in the South Bronx, said he rushed
over to discuss the situation when an officer put him
in a bear hug and threw him against a gate.
Blake described it as “an absolute injustice and tragedy
and said the only reason he was let go was because other police officers recognized him as an elected official.
The officer who tackled Blake did apologize for doing so soon after it happened, explaining that he had perceived him as a threat to his partner, but when Blake asked if he would do the same thing if the situation happened again, he said he would, according to Blake.
He filed a formal complaint with the Civilian Complaint Review Board on Saturday night and noted that he thought his race had something to do with the police officer’s conduct.
“I was a black man,” Blake said at a press conference about the incident on Monday morning. “I was seen as a threat, period. No questions asked.”
He emphatically denied that he had grabbed the officer’s shoulder despite the NYPD’s claim that the incident may have been sparked by Blake putting his hands on a police officer, describing any attempts to characterize him as aggressive during the interaction as slanderous.
“On Saturday afternoon, after multiple conversations with multiple officers, including the officers included in this situation, not one time did anyone indicate that their shoulder was touched,” he said. “But yet, ironically, when press reaches out, then all of a sudden your shoulder has been touched, and that was the reason for the action.”
Blake said he hoped to receive an apology from Commissioner Bill Bratton about the incident, along with a face to face meeting with him.
Bratton said he met with Blake soon after his Monday morning press conference and explained the protocols for investigating allegations similar to the ones he had filed.
He said the CCRB investigation would likely take several months and offered to provide Blake and his staff briefings on the use of force policies within the police department.
However, he said he would not be apologizing for the event at this time.
“There will be no apology forthcoming from me,” Bratton said at a separate press conference on Monday afternoon, adding, “We’ll see where the investigation goes.”
Mayor Bill de Blasio has already apologized to Blake for the incident, saying he told the assemblyman that he was sorry for what happened while stressing that there still needs to be a full investigation into it.
“We have to reserve final judgment until there is a normal kind of process where it’s investigated,” de Blasio said. “Obviously, he has a CCRB complaint in. That needs to go through the process, and then we’ll have a better picture.”
Blake said he hoped to see the officer face some sort of discipline for his actions on Saturday, but Bratton maintained that this was not likely to happen.
“There is no action that has been taken against the officer, nor will there be,” he said. “I have no reason to believe that the officer behaved in a significantly inappropriate manner. We will see what the investigation determines, but I see no reason to remove that officer.”
Blake stressed multiple times throughout the press conference that the only reason he was recognizable Monday was that he had been recognized on Saturday, which he viewed as an enormous problem.
“Your name and your title should not be determination for justice,” he said.